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期租合同中船东更换船员权利的条款

INTERTANKO Owner’s Right to Change Crew Clause – Time Charterparties

期租合同中船东更换船员权利的条款

傅恒星 编译

The current crew change crisis caused by the global pandemic is still continuing, with crew members regularly working far beyond the length of their contracts.

目前全球疫情大流行造成的船员更换危机仍在继续,船员的工作时间经常远远超过合同期限。


图片来源网络仅供示意

INTERTANKO’s Documentary Committee has considered and reviewed a number of charterparty crew change clauses (mainly in the bulk trades). Some of these have not been practical or commercially acceptable; others have been overly restrictive. Crew change is an Owner’s issue, so the Committee is sympathetic to a Charterer who might place a restriction on crew change in a short duration voyage or trip time charter.

INTERTANKO的文件委员会经深思熟虑并审查了一些租船合同的船员更换条款(主要是在散货贸易中)。其中一些不实用或在商务上不能接受,其他的则过于严格。更换船员是船东的问题,因此委员会赞同租船人在跨时短暂已航次为基础的期租中对船员更换的限制。

However, there should be more flexibility in a longer-term time charterparty and an open dialogue pre-fixture so parties can determine at that point if the vessel is suitable for the trade anticipated, or not in the event a crew change is planned. That way, if there is a crew change to be done it should be foreseen and planned for contractually (unless resulting from an unexpected event e.g. crew illness), with time and cost for Owner’s’ account.

然而,对于跨时较长的期租合同应该有更大的灵活性,并双方在签约前专门讨论一下船员的休假计划是否与租家的预期有冲突。这样,如果要更换船员,就应该根据合同进行提前规划(除非是由于意外事件,如船员疾病),所需的时间和费用由船东承担。

Some of the crew change clauses considered by the Documentary Committee reference that process and transparency, e.g. by indicating that no crew change is planned, save where it results from an unexpected event such as crew illness or injury. Owners report that they must accept reality and in some instances will lose business where a crew change is anticipated. In other instances there is pressure from Charterers even to ensure that a crew change takes place. So the situation is fluid even with detailed protocols for crew change in place. 

文件委员会考虑了一些船员变换班条款提到的流程和透明度,例如,条款中暗示除了因意外事件(如船员生病或受伤)导致的船员更换外,不应有船员变更的计划。船东报告说,他们必须接受现实,在某些情况下,如果计划更换船员,他们将失去业务。在其他情况下,即使是已确定的船员更换也会受到来自租家的压力所以,即使有详细的船员更换协议,情况也不稳定。

Whilst regulatory, and at times unpredictable, restrictions in port must be observed by Owners, there are still some instances reported where Charterers alone are putting restrictions on Owners changing crew even where there are no port side restrictions.  This is an unacceptable situation as all stakeholders need to be engaged in securing the welfare of seafarers wherever possible and show some compromise in these extraordinary times. 

虽然船东必须遵守港口当局的管制,而且有时是无法预测的限制,但仍有一些报告称,即使港口方面没有限制,承租人仍会对船东更换船员施加限制。这是一种不可接受的情况,因为所有利益攸关方都需要尽可能参与确保海员的福利,并在此非常时期表现出一些妥协。

With this in mind, the INTERTANKO Documentary Committee has drafted the following model clause which would prevent Charterers from refusing a crew change, save for where the restriction comes from the port side. A large number of companies have also signed the Neptune Declaration on Seafarer Wellbeing and Crew Change. The Committee thought it was opportune to also reference that in the clause, both for those who have signed it and for others who have not. All should embrace its intent as part of a shared responsibility for the current crew change crisis, particularly as it references increasing collaboration between ship operators and charterers to facilitate crew change.

考虑到这一点,INTERTANKO文件委员会起草了下列示范条款,以防止租船人拒绝更换船员,除非限制来自港口当局。许多公司还签署了《海王星海员福利和船员变更宣言》。委员会认为,对于已签署该条款的人和未签署该条款的其他人,也应在该条款中提到这一点。所有各方都应接受这一趋势,将其作为应对当前船员更换危机的共同责任的一部分,特别是它提到了增进船舶运营公司和承租人之间的合作,以促进船员更换。

The Model Clause is aimed at longer-term time charterparties where such collaboration is more appropriate and not where there is a series of voyage/trip time fixtures where a crew change on one fixture may impact on delivery on the next as well as cargo commitments. In the latter case it is reasonable for Charterers to be made aware of any planned crew change before fixing. 

示范条款针对的是长期租船合同,在这种情况下的合作更合适,而不是在一系列程租合同(在其中一个固定航次的船员更换可能会影响下一个程租航次的交付以及货运承诺)的情况下。在后一种情况下,租船人在锁定合同前应该知道任何计划的船员变动。

The Model Clause also provides that time for crew change is for Owner’s account, but only insofar as it results in time actually lost. If, for example, a crew change is achieved during a ‘slack’ ballast passage, there may be no loss of time.

示范条款还规定,更换船员的时间由船东承担,但仅在导致实际时间损失的情况下。例如,如果在“宽松的”压载航次完成船员更换,可能不会损失时间。

INTERTANKO Owner’s Right to Change Crew Clause – Time Charterparties

期租合同中船东更换船员权利的条款

傅恒星 编译

The current crew change crisis caused by the global pandemic is still continuing, with crew members regularly working far beyond the length of their contracts.

目前全球疫情大流行造成的船员更换危机仍在继续,船员的工作时间经常远远超过合同期限。

INTERTANKO’s Documentary Committee has considered and reviewed a number of charterparty crew change clauses (mainly in the bulk trades). Some of these have not been practical or commercially acceptable; others have been overly restrictive. Crew change is an Owner’s issue, so the Committee is sympathetic to a Charterer who might place a restriction on crew change in a short duration voyage or trip time charter.

INTERTANKO的文件委员会经深思熟虑并审查了一些租船合同的船员更换条款(主要是在散货贸易中)。其中一些不实用或在商务上不能接受,其他的则过于严格。更换船员是船东的问题,因此委员会赞同租船人在跨时短暂已航次为基础的期租中对船员更换的限制。

However, there should be more flexibility in a longer-term time charterparty and an open dialogue pre-fixture so parties can determine at that point if the vessel is suitable for the trade anticipated, or not in the event a crew change is planned. That way, if there is a crew change to be done it should be foreseen and planned for contractually (unless resulting from an unexpected event e.g. crew illness), with time and cost for Owner’s’ account.

然而,对于跨时较长的期租合同应该有更大的灵活性,并双方在签约前专门讨论一下船员的休假计划是否与租家的预期有冲突。这样,如果要更换船员,就应该根据合同进行提前规划(除非是由于意外事件,如船员疾病),所需的时间和费用由船东承担。

Some of the crew change clauses considered by the Documentary Committee reference that process and transparency, e.g. by indicating that no crew change is planned, save where it results from an unexpected event such as crew illness or injury. Owners report that they must accept reality and in some instances will lose business where a crew change is anticipated. In other instances there is pressure from Charterers even to ensure that a crew change takes place. So the situation is fluid even with detailed protocols for crew change in place. 

文件委员会考虑了一些船员变换班条款提到的流程和透明度,例如,条款中暗示除了因意外事件(如船员生病或受伤)导致的船员更换外,不应有船员变更的计划。船东报告说,他们必须接受现实,在某些情况下,如果计划更换船员,他们将失去业务。在其他情况下,即使是已确定的船员更换也会受到来自租家的压力所以,即使有详细的船员更换协议,情况也不稳定。

Whilst regulatory, and at times unpredictable, restrictions in port must be observed by Owners, there are still some instances reported where Charterers alone are putting restrictions on Owners changing crew even where there are no port side restrictions.  This is an unacceptable situation as all stakeholders need to be engaged in securing the welfare of seafarers wherever possible and show some compromise in these extraordinary times. 

虽然船东必须遵守港口当局的管制,而且有时是无法预测的限制,但仍有一些报告称,即使港口方面没有限制,承租人仍会对船东更换船员施加限制。这是一种不可接受的情况,因为所有利益攸关方都需要尽可能参与确保海员的福利,并在此非常时期表现出一些妥协。

With this in mind, the INTERTANKO Documentary Committee has drafted the following model clause which would prevent Charterers from refusing a crew change, save for where the restriction comes from the port side. A large number of companies have also signed the Neptune Declaration on Seafarer Wellbeing and Crew Change. The Committee thought it was opportune to also reference that in the clause, both for those who have signed it and for others who have not. All should embrace its intent as part of a shared responsibility for the current crew change crisis, particularly as it references increasing collaboration between ship operators and charterers to facilitate crew change.

考虑到这一点,INTERTANKO文件委员会起草了下列示范条款,以防止租船人拒绝更换船员,除非限制来自港口当局。许多公司还签署了《海王星海员福利和船员变更宣言》。委员会认为,对于已签署该条款的人和未签署该条款的其他人,也应在该条款中提到这一点。所有各方都应接受这一趋势,将其作为应对当前船员更换危机的共同责任的一部分,特别是它提到了增进船舶运营公司和承租人之间的合作,以促进船员更换。

The Model Clause is aimed at longer-term time charterparties where such collaboration is more appropriate and not where there is a series of voyage/trip time fixtures where a crew change on one fixture may impact on delivery on the next as well as cargo commitments. In the latter case it is reasonable for Charterers to be made aware of any planned crew change before fixing. 

示范条款针对的是长期租船合同,在这种情况下的合作更合适,而不是在一系列程租合同(在其中一个固定航次的船员更换可能会影响下一个程租航次的交付以及货运承诺)的情况下。在后一种情况下,租船人在锁定合同前应该知道任何计划的船员变动。

The Model Clause also provides that time for crew change is for Owner’s account, but only insofar as it results in time actually lost. If, for example, a crew change is achieved during a ‘slack’ ballast passage, there may be no loss of time.

示范条款还规定,更换船员的时间由船东承担,但仅在导致实际时间损失的情况下。例如,如果在“宽松的”压载航次完成船员更换,可能不会损失时间。

INTERTANKO Owners’ Right to Change Crew Clause – Time Charterparties

船东变更船员条款-定期租船合同的权利

Charterers warrant that:

承租人保证:

(i) they are aware of and support the aims of the Neptune Declaration on Seafarer Wellbeing and Crew Change; and

他们了解并支持《海王星海员福利和船员变更宣言》的目标;和

(ii) they shall not object to and/or impose any restriction owners’ right to change crew where such change is allowed by local or national laws or regulations applicable to intended port calls.

在适用于预期停靠港的地方或国家法律或法规允许的情况下,不应对船东更换船员的权利反对和/或施加任何限制。

Any time lost solely caused by crew change to be for Owners’ account

由船员更换造成的任何时间损失由船东承担

In addition, the issue of prohibition of crew changes was highlighted at the IMO Legal Committee which concluded in its report that:

此外,海事组织法律委员会强调了禁止更换船员的问题,该委员会在其报告中总结说:

“the inclusion in charterparties of clauses preventing crew changes was contrary to good practice and the principles of corporate social responsibility, and undermined the efforts being made to facilitate crew changes to ensure the safety of the crew and of the ship”.

“在租船合同中加入防止更换船员的条款,违背了业界良好做法和企业社会责任的原则,并破坏了为确保船员和船舶安全而促进更换船员的努力”。

This will be followed up at the next IMO Legal Committee meeting (LEG 108) which will take place in July 2021. 

这将在将于2021年7月举行的下一次海事组织法律委员会会议(LEG 108)上予以跟进。

INTERTANKO Owners’ Right to Change Crew Clause – Time Charterparties

船东变更船员条款-定期租船合同的权利

Charterers warrant that:

承租人保证:

(i) they are aware of and support the aims of the Neptune Declaration on Seafarer Wellbeing and Crew Change; and

他们了解并支持《海王星海员福利和船员变更宣言》的目标;和

(ii) they shall not object to and/or impose any restriction owners’ right to change crew where such change is allowed by local or national laws or regulations applicable to intended port calls.

在适用于预期停靠港的地方或国家法律或法规允许的情况下,不应对船东更换船员的权利反对和/或施加任何限制。

Any time lost solely caused by crew change to be for Owners’ account

由船员更换造成的任何时间损失由船东承担

In addition, the issue of prohibition of crew changes was highlighted at the IMO Legal Committee which concluded in its report that:

此外,海事组织法律委员会强调了禁止更换船员的问题,该委员会在其报告中总结说:

“the inclusion in charterparties of clauses preventing crew changes was contrary to good practice and the principles of corporate social responsibility, and undermined the efforts being made to facilitate crew changes to ensure the safety of the crew and of the ship”.

“在租船合同中加入防止更换船员的条款,违背了业界良好做法和企业社会责任的原则,并破坏了为确保船员和船舶安全而促进更换船员的努力”。

This will be followed up at the next IMO Legal Committee meeting (LEG 108) which will take place in July 2021. 

这将在将于2021年7月举行的下一次海事组织法律委员会会议(LEG 108)上予以跟进。

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